Almost 50 years ago, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the winds in the equatorial stratosphere was detected due to the establishment of a global, regularly measuring radiosonde network.
As part of the compilation of our daily stratospheric charts we have tabulated the daily wind observations of selected stations near the equator since 1957. For the earlier years, the values were extracted from the Northern Hemisphere Data Tabulations. From these daily values the monthly mean zonal wind components were calculated for the levels 70, 50, 40, 30, 20, 15, and 10 hPa and a data set from 1953 to the present was produced by combining the observations of the three radiosonde stations Canton Island (closed 1967), Gan/Maledive Islands (closed 1975), and Singapore (data file: qbo_53-01.dat; for a description of the data format cf. Section 8.4).
This data set is supposed to be representative of the equatorial belt since all studies have shown that longitudinal differences in the phase of the QBO are small. It should be noted, however, that some uncertainties arose at higher levels during the early years from the scarcity of observations. More information on the original data can be found in Naujokat (1986).
A second data set has been produced since 1987 from the Singapore data by using the daily vertical wind profiles to obtain a higher vertical resolution. In this set you will find the monthly mean zonal wind components at Singapore for every year from 1987 to the present at the levels 100 (since 1997), 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 12, and 10-hPa (singapore_87-01.dat).
The time-height section derived from these data in Fig.30 shows the observed structure of the QBO at equatorial latitudes:
Figure 30: Time-height section of monthly mean zonal winds (m/s) at equatorial stations: Canton Island, 3°S/172°W (Jan 1953 - Aug 1967), Gan/Maledive Islands, 1°S/73°E (Sep 1967 - Dec 1975) and Singapore, 1°N/104°E (since Jan 1976). Isopleths are at 10 m/s intervals; westerlies are shaded (updated from Naujokat, 1986)
Detailed information on all aspects of the QBO, its dynamics and its global effects, can be found in a most recent review paper of Baldwin et al (2001), including a comprehensive bibliography. A study of the coupling between the tropical QBO and the global stratospheric circulation has been performed by Marquardt (1998).
Baldwin, M.P., L.J. Gray, T.J. Dunkerton, K. Hamilton, P.H. Haynes, W.J. Randel, J.R. Holton, M.J. Alexander, I. Hirota, T. Horinouchi, D.B.A. Jones, J.S. Kinnersley, C. Marquardt, K. Sato, and M. Takahashi, 2001: The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Reviews of Geophys., 39, 179-229.
Naujokat, B., 1986: An update of the observed quasi-biennial oscillation of the stratospheric winds over the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1873-1877.
Marquardt, C. and B. Naujokat, 1997: An update of the equatorial QBO and its variability. SPARC Melbourne, WMO/TD-NO. 814, 87-90.
Marquardt, C., 1998: Die tropische QBO und dynamische Prozesse in der Stratosphäre. PhD Thesis, Met. Abh. FU-Berlin, Serie A, Band 9/Heft 4, Verlag Dietrich Reimer Berlin, 260 S.
Stratospheric Research Group Last modified: Mon Sep 2 14:23:05 MEST 2002